Okay, I take note.

Well, I have run a number of sensitivity tests as follows, but the observations are almost similar as highlighted earlier:

- Topo_wind = 0, FNL-SST, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 1, FNL-SST, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 2, FNL-SST, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 1, RTG-SST_HR, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 2, RTG-SST_HR, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 1, RTG-SST_HR, PBLMIX = 1, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 2, RTG-SST_HR, PBLMIX = 1, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 1, RTG-SST_HR, diff_opt = 2 (Full Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 2 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion = Positive Definite), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 2, RTG-SST_HR, diff_opt = 2 (Full Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 2 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion = Positive Definite), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 1, RTG-SST_HR, PBLMIX = 1, diff_opt = 2 (Full Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 2 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion = Positive Definite), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 2, RTG-SST_HR, PBLMIX = 1, diff_opt = 2 (Full Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 2 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion = Positive Definite), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option).

- Topo_wind = 0, RTG-SST_HR, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option) + mp_physics = 3, cu_physics = 1, ra_lw_physics = 1, ra_sw_physics = 1, surface_input_source = 3, isfflx = 1, ifsnow = 1, h_mom_adv_order = 5, h_sca_adv_order = 5, v_mom_adv_order = 3, v_sca_adv_order = 3.

- Topo_wind = 2, RTG-SST_HR, PBLMIX =1, diff_opt = 1 (Simple Diffusion), diff_6th_opt = 0 (6th Order Horizontal Diffusion), km_opt = 4 (2d Deformation - K Option) + sf_urban_physics = 1, surface_input_source = 3, isfflx = 1, ifsnow = 1, h_mom_adv_order = 5, h_sca_adv_order = 5, v_mom_adv_order = 3, v_sca_adv_order = 3.

I have used the tropical physics suite for all options except for the ones in which I have specified the physics options.

Removing the topography is making topo_wind = 0.

How can I reduce the thermal-contrast between the land and the ocean? any specific settings in physics??

I take note and the surprising thing is that on the windward side WRF is performing well.

Appreciate your assistance and advice.

Regards

Kunal